KINDLE BOOK Modern South India – solutions–development.co.uk
Let us just say that this book is an ambitious and courageous attempt to start with To even tell a story involving four centuries and primarily four main southern states is not a small task at all There has been a lot of research which has been one into the compiling this exhaustive version It tries to Black on Blonde give a continuity which makes it easy for the reader to navigate through It is surely a nightmare for those who are not aware about theeopolitics of Southern India even remotely There is no dearth of anecdotes in this voluminous work of the author If somebody has keenly followed the Indian history well then there would be many repetitions but that s understandable In the later stages of the book there is focus on the political events of the southern states with respect to the national scene On the political side the book has touched mostly all issues barring the Andhra Telangana separation mainly One could argue that lot of things have not been covered but I The Walters Art Museum the Art of Ancient Greece guess one can do this much justice only considering each state in southern India is as big as a nation when one looks at the inherent diversity As a whole this book can serve as a starter if one is willing to explore the southern India history and the best part is that it is compiled in one place Mr Gandhi researched lot to write this book From the fall of Vijayanagara empire to fall of Tipu Sultanives a clear picture of those era This is the best part I liked in the bookHowever from then onwards the book wanders everywhere and the structure is lost We American Nietzsche get very sporadic details about 19th century south India This was a very important period as during that time South Indians were shifting to modern education Christian Missionaries actively worked among the lower rungs of the masses and in turn shaping their thought process Britisher s attitude became that of Masters Fault lines were beginning to appear in the earlier caste system which explodes in 20th century Early 20th Century South Indian history is told through the prism of Rajaji and EVR predominantly We also read about few other leaders in each regionThis part has became a kind of biography reading though we can understand the undercurrents This part doesn t do justice to the history of the land We alsoet to read about Music trinity Few writers and MS subbulakshmi This doesn t fit properly in the structure of the book Probably Mr Gandhi wanted to emulate KA Nilakanta Sastri KAN Sastri in his bookwas thorough explaining literature religion art and culture But Mr Gandhi just Art, Culture, and Cuisine gives few broad strokesThis is definitely a readable book and youet to understand the One big South Indian Canvas However it lacks details especially for 19th and early 20th century May be I expected too much from the book The Indian revolutionaries who resisted British rule and wanted to Berlioz and His Century gain independence by any means hold a special charm Their words used to carry fire and actions evoked an extreme form of nationalism They were tortured and executed by the British Try recalling revolutionaries and Bhagat Singh Chandrasekhar Azad Shivaram Rajguru Udhav Singh Ashfaulla Khan Benoy Krishna Basu Dinesh Gupta and Badal Gupta immediately comes to mind If I exert slight pressure on my mind myriad numbers of other revolutionaries names crop up The revolutionaries hailed from Punjab Bengal Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh The moot uestion is why no name from the South The first war of independence originated from the North From the South apart from Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan were there no prominent names who deserve a mention in history As a matter of fact there are many A person like me had not read about them in a school history book Maybe the party in power dictated what we should learn and about whom That was the credence we believed then Some were put on a pedestal and some others who were in the similar league were snuffed out If you do not hail from South India and your knowledge is superficial like that of mine then this is an apt book to fill up yourap in knowledge Let s discuss some unsung individuals and events from South India who were lost in the pages of history We shall also discuss three decade events immediately after independence in the major
INDIAN STATESIN THE SECOND HALF OFStatesIn the second half of seventeenth century apart from Marathas Mughal and local chiefs European power too battled for control Initially the Indian prince or chiefs were the paymasters of the whites The Indian chiefs view one another as rivals and availed European company services for destroying their native foe The European powers were strong with their ships and advanced weapons The British desired to possess all of India They were one of the contending forces Later much of South India was vanuished and had fallen under the British ruleTwo persons are better represented by anybody else in the history of eighteen century South Indian history They took the resistance to British to altogether a new level They were the father son duo of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan the latter joined the league of famous rulers Among the dozen so rulers during the time Tipu Sultan is the one who really scared the British Among the historical heroes Tipu Sultan holds a special place His ruthless image had not dented his due place Their resistance to British ought to have provided them with French support but their treaty with British and French Revolution prevented any such development I m not dwelling much about them They are already renownedMathuranayagam Pillai was born to a Hindu farming family Later he converted to Islam and was known as Mohammed Yusuf Khan He initially served under Chanda Sahib the Nawab of Arcot He later was enrolled under Major Stringer Lawrence who was the supreme commander of British East India Company Under him Yusuf Khan was trained in the European method of warfare He had excelled in military tactics and strategy when English forces fought the French in the wars of the Carnatic His Aristotles Rhetoric guerrilla tactics were the key reason which repeatedly cut the French line of supply Due to his militaryenius he was promoted to the rank of Commandant of East India Company s Sepoys Later he proclaimed as an independent ruler of Madurai and Tirunelveli He had a dispute with Nawab of Arcot and the British and they became his enemy The kingdom of Sivaganga Tanjore Travancore Puddakkotai and Ramnad joined hands with Nawab of Arcot and the British to attack Yusuf Khan Two bitter battles were fought between Yusuf Khan and East India company He was betrayed Khan Two bitter battles were fought between Yusuf Khan and East India company He was betrayed his comrade in arms and was captured and hanged He was held in very high esteem by the British even after his death According to them he was one of the two best military Blood Runs Green genii India had ever produced The other one is Hyder Ali Yusuf Khan was respected for his strategy while Hyder Ali for his speed In fact Yusuf Khan had defeated Hyder Ali in a battle Renowned actor Kamal Hasan had once embarked on a film project on the warrior However the same was shelved because of political reasons and financial constraintsSivagangai is a place which had once held footprints of mighty warriors known as Marudu brothers who left an inedible impression in the military history The father of Periya Marudu and Chinna Marudu was a militaryeneral in the princely state of Ramnad They received training in martial arts Seeing their valour and bravery the king of Ramnad sent them to Sivagangai to serve and protect their daughter Rani Velu Nachiyar who was married the king Muthu Vadaganatha Devar The king lost his life during a war fought with the British East India company The brothers managed to escape along with Rani Velu Nachiyar She had vowed to protect her State The brothers trained her in the battle against the British She strikes a fearsome chord with the British She was the inventor of suicide attacks The brothers were captured and killed by the British along with their family members The brothers were noteworthy for their expertise in handling valari which is a weapon designed to kill a target and return back like a boomerang The British dreaded it Periya Marudu was a ferocious person while his brother Chinna Maradu was a brilliant and adroit strategist They were considered the most dangerous rebels by the British The brothers issued a proclamation of independence from Trichy even before Sepoy MutinyThe first major act of defiance took place in 1806 This is better known as Vellore Mutiny which marked the first ever large scale and violent mutiny by Indian sepoys against the East Indian Company The Vellore Mutiny took place even before the famous rebellion of 1857 The cause of the revolt was the resentment towards change in sepoy dress code The Hindus were refrained from putting caste marks on the forehead while on duty The Muslims were ordered to Charting an Empire get rid of their beards The feeling ofetting Christianized caused enough indignation and sparked a feeling of rebellion The sepoys seized Vellore Fort and around 200 British troops were wounded or killed Though it lasted for one day only it was very brutal The mutiny was subdued and defiant sepoys were executed The British actions attracted odium The mutiny was subdued soon but it created a ripple of fear among the British overlordsOne person who has had a profound socio political impact was EVRamasamy commonly known as Periyar His philosophy and actions were opposed to Brahminism which he felt had dominated other castes through their religion s principles and practices He propounded rationalism and criticized the Hindu religion as superstitious He had left the Congress Party because he felt it was dominated by the Brahmins He founded Self respect movement with the aim of Colored Property generating pride in lower castes He was considered a big anti caste icon in India He led movements highlighting Tamil pride He started a party named Dravidar Kazhagam party which is considered the inspiration of all political parties launched on the plank of Tamilian pride His Dravidian movements produced subsidiaries like DMK and AIDMK The DMK was formed by Periyar trusted lieutenant Annadurai He announced his intention to strike Tamil mind employing Tamil literature linguistics poetry plays films newspaper and journals It was during the time of Congress hegemony The State was ruled by charismatic and respected Kamaraj The State was making a steady progress under him Still DMK was able to spread its egalitarian ideology and party sreater awareness by relying on the scriptwriters and actors assisted by films In 1967 DMK came into power by routing Congress Annadurai became Chief Minister MKarunanidhi was another power in the party MKarunanidhi became the Chief Minister twice after Annadurai s death He was also influential in bring MG Ramachandran better known as MGR into the party MGR was a superstar known for Desire and Truth generous virtuous teetotaller man who fought corrupt bureaucracy and corrupt landlords while taking sides of the poor His off screen appeal was unmatched and unparalleled Due to difference with Karunanidhi MGR formed his owned party AIADMK With his welfare schemes he had made a considerable social impact He was the. The sounds and flavours of the land south of the Vindhyas temple bells coffee and jasmine coconut and tamarind delicious dosais and appams are familiar to many but its history is relatively unknown In this monumental study the first in over fifty years historian and biographer Rajmohan Gandhi brings us the South Indian story in modern times At heart the story he tells is one of four powerful cultures Kannada Malayalam Tamil and Telugu as well as the cultures Kodava Konkani Marathi Oriya Tulu and indigenous that have influenced themWhen the narrative begins at the end of the sixteenth century the Deccan sultanates of Bijapur Ahmadnagar Golconda and Bidar have combined to defeat the kingdom of Vijayanagara one of the lastreat medieval empires of the South After the fall of Vijayanagara less powerful nayakas or sultans ruled the region Competition raged between these rulers and the many European trading companies By the seventeenth century only the French and British remained to fight it out in association with Indian rulers and princely statesThe eighteenth century saw the rowth of the. Orn into Brahmin family near Bijapur popularized a radical caste free temple free and personal devotion to God The Lingayat community was initiated by himVeeramamunivarConstanzo Beschi the Italian missionary had composed Latin translation of Valluvar s KuralVemana Charles Philip Brown was the one brought Vemana into Limelight In 1803 he printed 500 copies of Vemana Verses VadiveluA violinist who lived along with the uartet Travancore king Swathi Thirunal ave him a violin made of Ivory6 Study to the RuleAfter Tipu s death British were the only power in India In 1806 103 English East India Company merchants became members of the House of Commons In 1799 Scottish Colin Mckenzie was asked to prepare a map of Tipu controlled territory He also collected manuscripts which are now in Chennai Government Oriental Manuscript Library Ellis a Britsh Governor did the Dravidian study Thomas Munro was the Governor of Madras 1820 1827 He introduced the Ryotwari Tax system where Tax was directly collected from the peasants He died of cholera in 1827 His statue was erected in Anna Salai in the late 1830 sCharles Philip Brown was for Telugu like how Ellis and Beschi were for Tamil7 A Gift for the ueenRani Chenamma She is Kannadiga Rani who fought the British than three decades before Jhansi Rani She belonged to Kittur She dies in 1829 She married Mallasaraja and had a son Shivalingaruda Both father and son died in 1824 So she adopted a son Shivalingappa but British failed to authorize that due to Doctrine of Lapse This led to war Even though the British won the war lot of British officers were killed One of them was St John Thackery sub collector of Solapur Nephew of Thomas MunroMysore After Tipu s death in 1799 Mysore was ruled by Krishnaraja Wodaiyar But in 1831 British took direct control of Mysore citing mal administration They ruled till 1831 1881 Mark Cubbon was Mysore Commissioner from 1831 1860 He was known for suppressing 1857 revolt in Mysore Later Mysore went to Wodaiyar in 1881 Cubbon has a park and road named after him in BangaloreAfter Tipu s death Madras Presidency started to expand1831 Mysore 1834 Coorg 1855 Arcot Nawab 1836 Railway line for the Goods 1856 Royapuram to Arcot train 1830 s Engineering College Medical College Madras Christian College 1853 Telegraph 1857 Madras University1850 s Mukkombu and Godavari DamsExcept Hyderabad Nizam Travancore and Pudhukottai all were with British These three were autonomous provincesHyderabad defended the 1857 revolt with the help of Salar Jung In Karnataka Mark Cubbon suppressed it During those times Telegraph was there so information was passed uickly In 1858 summer East India Company rule ended India came under ueen s control 1858 Lord Canning became the Viceroy of India 1876 House of Commons made ueen the empress of India as well 1881 Mysore was formally returned to Chamarajendra 16 year old prince of Mysore8 Stung to Reform1876 Great Famine 1878 The Hindu was started as a weekly magazine 1880 Lord Ripon became the viceroy DadaBhai Naoroji became the British MP in 1892 1895 He founded the congress with AOHumeViresalingam Social Reformer fought for widow re marriage He belonged to Rajamundry Students revolted against Shankaracharya when he visited Rajamundry9 Defining the FoeIn 1909 Bengal was separated 1911 Bengal was re unified 1911 Robert Ashe was killed by Vaanchinathan In 1911 Brahmins were 3% of Madras Presidency population But in 1901 1911 4074 Brahmin Dislocating China graduatesraduated from Madras University In 1914 Dravidian Home was opened by Panagal Raja for Non Brahmin students Annie Besant 1847 1933 Came to India in 1894 she asked for Home rule in India In 1917 South Indian Liberal Federation was formed later known to called as the Justice PartyMontFord Reforms Montagu Secretary of State Chelmsford Viceroy reforms Elected Indians can look after education and sanitation under the supervision of Governor chosen in London1915 Maraimalai Adigal launched the pure tamil movement it was drawn on Manonmaniyam Madness of the mind It was written about tamil 1919 Rowalatt Act Jallianwallah Bagh 1920 Non Cooperation movement 1922 Ended due to Chauri Chaura incident 1921 Mappila who were the descendants of Arab Muslims protested against the British 1925 In Vaikom four roads around the temple were not allowed for untouchables to walk through In Nov 1925 3 roads were opened and 1935 4th road was opened10 From Prison to Fort St George1920 s Gandhi called for Non Cooperation movement May 1925 Periyar left congress to start Self Respect movementCA Perumal uoted Terrorism was a high caste affair Poona Pact Reserved seats for SC s in election 1932 Guruvayur temple entry 1929 1930 Periyar visited Malaya and Singapore In 1931 1932 He visited Egypt Turkey Europe RussiaMuthulakshmi Reddy 1886 1968 She was born to SNarayanaswami Iyer and Chandrammal She married at the age of 28 to DrTSundara Reddy She was first female to Childerley graduate with Medical degree from University of Madras First female to be nominated to Madras Legislative council in 1927 She fought against the Devadasi system other one was Moovalur Ramamirtham1937 Congress contested elections and Rajaji won till then from 1920 it did not contest the elections as it was part of Non Cooperation movementSep 1937 Rajaji made announcement that Hindi would be offered He rejected the advice from Erkinsine Sathyamurthi and Saravapalli Radhakrishnan In Jan 1939 Periyar Anna were all arrested May 1939 They were released Till 1939 Thirupathi was not opened for all In 1940 Kamarajar MLA from Sattur became TNCC president defeating CP Subbiah who was nominated by Rajaji 11 FreedomCripps Mission The Cripps Mission was a failed attempt in late March 1942 by the Britishovernment to secure full Indian cooperation and support for their efforts in World War II The mission was headed by a senior minister Sir Stafford Cripps It was led by Stafford CrippsJapanese bombed Kakinada and Vizag on 6th April 1942Simla Conference The Simla Conference 1945 was a meeting between the Viceroy of India Lord Wavell and the major political leaders of British India at Simla Convened to agree on and approve the Wavell Plan for Indian self Cultural Excursions government and there it reached a potential agreement for the self rule of India that provided separate representation for Muslims and reduced majority powers for both communities in their majority regions12 New Maps for the OldRajaji became Governor General for Independent IndiaOperation Polo 13th September 1948 it was a bid to capture Hyderabad13 Euations with New DelhiCommunistsot into power in 1957 elections 2 years later Delhi invoked Article 356 and revoked Kerala S Elected Government In s elected Cruelty and Laughter government In Nehru unveiled a Kamaraj Statue on Chennai s Mount Road Until then no one living had that honor from NehruKamaraj Plan On 2nd October 1963 Kamarajar resigned as Chief Minister to do party work14 Pain Drama Grace19th May 1982 There was a shootout in Pondy Bazar between LTTE chief Prabhakaran and his former colleague Uma Maheshwaran15 Ending an ExcursionMulayam Singh proposed Kalam s name As a defense minister in both Gujaral and Gowdaovernment Mulayam had known and liked his DRDO chiefAugust 22 2019 1226 PM The book claims to be a seuel to Nilakanta Shastri s classic on premodern South India In a way it is a fitting seuel because it sticks by and large with political history only In it the author seems to have ignored some of the layered progress made in recent years in historiography Gandhi does not spend too much time in exploring the social and political formations that overned public life the connections between literature and other aspects of the various societies of Southern India etc That having said the book deals substantially with the political events of colonialism in South India Here too however there is a disappointment Gandhi has been mostly a top class biographer and a historian of modern history only His sources were limited to English writings newspapers books speeches and the modern archives But the period he deals with demands mastery over a wider range of sources something managed by Textures of Time The book rightfully refers to this regularly Therefore the book suffers because Travancore features in relation only to Mysore and Arcot and those two
appear only inasmuch as they are connected to expanding frontiers of British and French territories I would want toonly inasmuch as they are connected to expanding frontiers of British and French territories I would want to about the courts and society of Malabar women and the systems of marriage the various forms that caste took in these diverse cultures and so on The section on Carnatic Music and literature seems to have been added in
a compensatory fashion A lot of the references do not belong to this period even The observations of dubashes like Anandacompensatory fashion A lot of the references do not belong to this period even The observations of dubashes like Ananda Pillai and surveyors like Francis Buchanan are really amusing and engaging to read The section on twentieth century first half could might as well have been a section from Gandhi s wonderful biography of his randfather Rajaji Throughout the book a few sections offer let downs but I insist that this is a Cultural Aesthetics good read nonetheless Dull and dry read The author white washes The Goa Inuisition theenocide by Vasco Da Gama and Moplah rebellions Its a typical book like those leftists cabal This book needs lot of maps which could have piue the interest of readers South India still awaits a comprehensive history which caters to Class and Conformity general audience This book would be improved 100% by maps I read the first chapter and introduction as well as skimmed around the rest Its extremely tedious to read when you aren t familiar with the places and are continually having tooogle map it not a minor task in India I m sorry to not be able to read Extremely dull and dry coming from someone who loves textbooks and loves Indian history Little effort to tie together themes or analyze larger trends This just Descartes and His Contemporaries gives you what happened and when Scholarly work with exhaustive research Arguably too ambitious in its scope Most comfortable when talking about Tamil Nadu in the 20th century There is hardly any land in the world that would have a diverse colourful scintillating history than India To recreate this past onto pages of a book would be a mammoth task To recreate the history of only a part of this vast country would also not be easy Author Rajmohan Gandhi attempted this herculean task to bring to life the battles the politics the literature the arts the heroes and villains of South India A bold attempt which I unfortunately feel fell flat Not for want of material one could keep writing volumes but because Mr Gandhi appears a bit lost in putting all the pieces together to create something truly exciting the way history is fun to read The things that made the book tedious to complete i Too many citations from other sources stifling the flow of the narrativeii Jumps between characters too uicklyiii Many short tales placed in between intercepting the broad storyiv Lack of maps to showcase the changing regions and borders so important One can find the possibilities ofreat stories in between the pages of this book but alas they drown way too uickly. Rty Andhra Mahajana Sabha Dravida Kazhagam and others emerged Prominent South Indian leaders such as Annie Besant C Rajagopalachari E V Ramasami Naicker Varadarajulu Naidu K Kamaraj Annadurai Kamaladevi E M S Namboodiripad Potti Sriramulu and others took the fight to the British while at the same time carrying on campaigns to ensure the dignity of all citizensAfter Independence new states were carved out from the former presidencies and princely states along linguistic lines Tamil Nadu Karnataka Kerala and Andhra The book ends in the present with a look at the new eneration of political leaders who have taken overfrom dominant personalities like M Karunanidhi N T Rama Rao M G Ramachandran J Jayalalithaa K Karunakaran and Ramakrishna Hegde It also covers some of the most significant figures from other fields such as Narayana Guru M S Subbulakshmi U R Ananthamurthy Dr Muthulakshmi Reddy and othersA masterpiece in every sense of the word Modern South India is a rich authoritative and magnificent work of history about the South that will be read debated and reflected upon for years to come.
Rajmohan Gandhi Ü 3 readChief Minister from 1977 till his death in 1987After British had snatched control of the Mysore Empire they ruled it for fifty years In 1881 they handed it back to the Wodeyers ruled by Jayachamaraja Wodeyar The ruled continued till India s independence After that Mysore was merged with the Indian Union After States were reorganized Kannada speaking areas came under Mysore The Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973 Ex Congress President S Nijalingappa became chief minister for 4 times It was Congress who had dominated Karnataka political scene till 1983 until dislodged by Janata Dal strongman Ramakrishna Hedge The longest serving chief minister was D Devaraj Urs who had held the office for 7 years Another prominent name from the State was Deve Gowda from Janata Dal who had cut short his tenure to become Prime Minister of India It was oscillating between Congress and Janata Dal However present chief minister B S Yediyurappa is from BJP Karnataka is the first Southern state where BJP has formed a overnmentThe origin of Kerala lies in the princely states of Travancore and Cochin It was known as Travancore Cochin state Later the State Reorganization Act came into effect and Kerala was born which comprised of Malayalam speaking districts The first chief minister was EMS Namboodiripad of the Communist Party of India Later on fortunes had swung between the Indian National Congress and the Communist Party of India The present incumbent chief minister Pinarayi Vijayan is from the Communist Party of India as well The Communist Party has been wiped out in State like West Bengal where it had ruled for 34 years till a decade back Why Kerala still holds an appeal is a case study The reasons are many ranging from historical to organizational attributes Much of the post the 1925 independence struggle in Kerala is attributed to the communist leaders They have fought against caste oppression A clear cut organization hierarchy exists for the party in the state The Student Federation of India has a significant presence The co operative sector mostly is owned directly or indirectly owned by the party thus ensuring public services and employment to the party cadres The party s progressive policies like the right to the internet and it s stand in women entry to Sabarimala has Education and Equality gone down well with the youngenerations They designate manual labours from other states not as migrants but as a uest labourer The Communists in Kerala have changed with times and have never intended to market a communist based market system Rather they represent a nuisance form of socialism that is suitable for Indian conditionsPotti Sriramulu went on a strike demanding the formation of Indian State for the Telugu speaking population carved out from Madras Presidency He lost his life in the process His sacrifice triggered the creation of Andhra Pradesh This was followed by the creation of Karnataka and Kerala states In 1956 the Indian political map was redrawn based on the linguistic line The modern history of Andhra Pradesh is synonymous with NT Rama Rao On screen he portrayed incarnation of the divine He appeared in some 300 films and directed about a dozen films He demonstrated enormous popular appeal He rose to superstardom and attained a cult figure status He adopted white or saffron robes as his everyday dress which further catapulted his lofty image He parlayed his fame into a successful political career He was the first Non Congress Chief Minister He had been the Chief Minister three times Post Indira Gandhi s assassination his party Telugu Desam Party bucked off national mood to win 30 out of 42 seats in Lok Sabha During his tenure a number of populist welfare schemes were started like clothing subsidies food and housing for people below the poverty line He also initiated a midday meal program for schoolchildren and banned alcohol in the StateFor writing this book the author turned to libraries archives newspapers journals and published works The book has been repleted with an abundance of information that seems to cover every itsy bitsy detail The description has been through iving The recording of events is well chronicled The author rigor is clearly visible The author Rajmohan Gandhi is a biographer and a research professor He tried his stints in politics too He is the Dangerous Work grandson of Mahatma Gandhi and C Rajagopalachari No wonder C Rajagopalachari has beeniven extensive coverage in this book Whatever the book makes an interesting read Do add it to your wish list Modern South India Rajmohan GandhiWhen we try to Google any war or personality in the Indian History we see some suggestions for that term of that the one which no one can miss is the keyword UPSC appended to it Studying
History Has Almost Become Thehas almost become the of interest for exam aspirants novelists or students With that this book can touch upon major historic events wars personalities who or which made the History of Modern South India This book is no any exhaustive account of the History but a Flavor and Soul glimpse of things which cannot be missed 1 Sails on the HorizonAkbar lived till 1605 he lived for 63 years Vascodagama landed in Calicut in 1498 Dutch landed in Pulicat in 1608 and the Danish landed in Tranuebar in 1620Krishnadevaraya ruled from 1509 1529 and Vijayanagara Kingdom ended in 1565 Battle of Talikot After Vijayanagara kingdom ended it created a vacuum in South Indian power 4 forces wanted to capture South India Mughals from North India under Aurangazeb Deccan Sultanates from Golconda Bijapur Nayaks who were soldiers to Vijayanagar Kingdom Marathas who were soldiers to Bijapur SultanateIn Europe Dutch were thereatest merchants In 1610 Dutch erected Pulicat fort in 1660 Dutch took Nagapattinam from Portuguese and in 1663 Dutch took Cochin In a nutshell somewhere in the 1660 s Dutch had both the Coromandel and the Malabar coastIn 1639 Francis Day and Andrew logan constructed the FortStGeorge A century before Portuguese had set up Santhome English East India company ot land from the Chandragiri RajaPortuguese built Fort KochiJohn De Britto He changed his name to Arul Anandar and converted Poligars to Christianity He was killed by SethupathiKing of Ramnad Its because Britto converted Thadiyathevan and asked him to dismiss all but one of his wives One wife was sisternephew of King Sethupathi2 Cannons on the GroundAurangazeb 1618 1707 King Shivaji 1630 1680In 1702 Aurangazeb sent Nawab Daud Khan Panni to besiege Fort St George He later on became Nawab of Arcot 1703 1710 Saadatullah Khan was Nawab of Arcot or Carnatic from 1710 1732 In 1714 he attached Gingee fort which was with Raja Tej Singh who was called Desingu Raja Tej Singh died in the war and his young wife committed sati In remembrance of her the Nawab established a town called Ranipet opposite to Arcot in the North Banks of River PalarJoseph Francois Dupleix 1697 1763 He was the French Governor General of India Ananda Ranga Pillai was his dubashi he wrote a diary which is the major source of Information for French Colonial history in India Dupleix wife was Jeanne who was a widow and she spread ChristianityArcot Nawabs Daud Khan Panni 1703 1710 Saadatullah Khan 1710 1732 Dost Ali Khan 1732 1740 Safadar Ali Khan 1740 1742 Saadatullah Khan 2 1742 1744 Anwaruddain Khan 1744 1749 Chanda Sahib 1749 1752 Walajah 1752 1795Nadir Shah 1688 1747Iranian ruler who defeated Mughal empire He invaded Delhi in 1738 and defeated Mohammad Shah his son took Shah s wife He ave them back the kingdom in exchange for old and men Nearly 100000 to 150000 men died during that timeIn 1746 Dupleix captured Fort St George but Nawab of Arcot Anwaruddin Khan was not happy with that This led to Battle of Adayar in 22nd October 1746 between French forces and Nawab of Arcot In this the French wonIn 1740 the Marathas killed Dost Ali khan who was the successor of Saadatullah KhanArcot of Nawab They again went to capture Fort Trichy which was ruled by Chanda Sahib who took that from Nayaka ueen Meenakshi daughter in law of Rani Managamma it is called 1741 Siege of TrichyChanda SahibHe was arrested and taken by the marathas after the and taken by the Marathas after the of Fort Trichy In 1747 the French Backed Chanda Sahib for Arcot NawabMuzzaffar Jung for Golconda NawabBut the English backedAnwaruddin for Arcot NawabNasir Jung for Golconda NawabBattle of Ambur 1749Nawab Anwaruudin and British fought against French the Chanda Sahib Anwaruddin was killed by ChandaSahib and he became the Nawab of ArcotMuhammad Ali WalajahAnwaruddin son Walajah wanted to become the Arcot Nawab With the help from Duleix Chanda Sahib Went To Capture Fort to capture Fort But at that time Robert Clive went to capture Arcot Fort With the help from Mysoreans Marathas British Chanda Sahib was killed in 1752 and Ali Walajah became Arcot Nawab He ruled longer than other NawabsBut Ali Walajah didn t handover the Fort Trichy to Mysoreans so the protect that they palced a strongman named Yusuf Khan alias MarudhanayagamIn 1754 Dupleix was called back to France siting failure and financial loss He died in 1763 and France recognized Ali Walajah as Arcot NawabMarthanda Warma 1705 1758He ruled Travancore He defeated the Dutch in the Battle of Kualchal in 1751 This is the decline of Dutch control in Spice trade He captured a prisoner called Lannoy in the war who later commanded the Travancore army His raveyard is in Udayagiri Fort in Kannayakumari In 1750 he declared the state to Padbanama Swamy and he is ruling on behalf of him as servantWandiwashThomas Arthur Lally became French Governor in 1758 In 1760 he lost to British in the Battle of Wandiwash This was the 3rd Carnatic war In 1761 Pondicherry fell to British and was again returned to France in 1763 by the Treaty of Paris3 Fire in The MindYusuf KhanHe was employed by Mohammad Ali Walajah and the British to protect Fort Trichy He later became overnor of Madurai and Thirunelveli But desire to lead on his own lead to him revolt against the British and the Nawab He was later captured and killed in 1764 by the NawabHaidar Ali 1721 1782Haidar Ali was Military chief of Mysore King Krishanaraja He fought the Fort Trichy Nawab Battle for the Mysoreans In 1758 King Devaraja was dying so he made Haidar Ali the Dalavai In 1761 he became the ruler of MysoreTipu Sultan 1750 1799Son of Haidar Ali fought against the British French couldn t help him due to French Revolution He was killed in Battle of Srirangapattana in 1799 His death was celebrated in London by placing by 100 feet canvas saying the Stroming of Srirangapattana4 Eruptions and Country LifePazhassi Raja 1753 1805He fought against the British in Guerilla warfare in Wayanad He was killed in 1805 He was the King of Kottayam Kannur DistrictVeerapandia Kattabomman 1760 1799A poligar who fought against the British He was killed in 1799 Later his brother Duraisingam escaped from prison joined with Marudhu Brothers in Sivagangai Later all were killed5 Songs from the Soul In 1799 when Tipu was killed Thyagaraja Muthuswami Diikshitar and Syama Sastri were in therir twenties or thirities BasavaTwelfth century poet statesmen Basava Kingdom of Mysore first under Haidar Ali a military leader who had briefly served the Nawab of Arcot and then under his son Tipu Sultan who annexed parts of present day Tamil Nadu and Kerala By now the European presence was rowing strong and assertive And with the fall of Tipu in the Fourth Anglo Mysore War at the end of the eighteenth century the British East India Company now the sole European power in South India consolidated its holdings in the SouthIn the nineteenth century power changed hands from the private East India Company to the British monarchy ueen Victoria became the ‘Empress of India’ and Britain continued consolidating its territory Despite the tumultuous environment this century also saw a creative outpouringThe twentieth century saw a change in the relationship between the foreign ruler and the Indian citizenry No longer content with isolated military campaigns led by rajas or nawabs Indians expressed their urge for freedom through democratic outlets National parties such as the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League and regional ones like the Justice Pa.